Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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Mark marked it as to-read Jul 28, One can illustrate the contrast between the two hypotheses by means of important past decisions in international politics. After all, factors external to the actor can become determinants only as they affect the mind, heart, and will of the decision-maker.
Yet excessive expectations concerning enemy action can have serious drawbacks; instead of deterring an opponent from taking action for which he has the capability, it may lead to preparations so massive that hostile action by the opponent is provoked rather than prevented.
It is asked whether a realistic image of the contemporary international scene should not include such non- state corporate actors as the United Nations or the Communist International.
Thus, differences in such individual psychological traits as motiva- tion, value preferences, temperament, and rationality are considered essential variables, and so are differences arising from affiliation of individuals with particular parties, agencies within the state, or with peoples of different culture. Here a nation finds itself competing with others for a share in values of limited supply; it is demanding that its share be left intact or be increased.
No attempt will be made here to identify and classify all the many goals that nations set for themselves or may set for themselves in the framework of their foreign policy. Advanced Search Find a Library. But there are other cases that 4 Op. Imagine a number of individuals, varying widely in their predis- positions, who find themselves inside a house on fire.
Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.
Yet most Germans seem to agree with the official view of the West German government according to which the goal of preserving the freedoms West Germans enjoy under a democratic constitution-an indirect national goal-should be given precedence over German reunification.
Similarly, although individual nations and statesmen have a great and sometimes spec- tacular impact on the course of events, international “relations” in the literal sense require foremost attention. These new approaches must be credited with humanizing international politics by attracting attention to the human element minimized in the traditional approach.
There is one difference, however: If, as Hobbes assumed, all states were equally and constantly driven by fear that their survival, the most cherished of their state possessions, might be threatened, then the multistate system would The Actors in International Politics 11 of necessity become an all-round struggle for security.
If the nation-states are seen as the sole actors, moving or moved like a set of chess figures in a highly abstract game, one may lose sight of the human beings for whom and by whom the game is supposed to be played. The justification for this exception should become clear when the unique position of these two values as the means par excellence for the attainment of all other foreign policy goals is discussed.
Dmitry marked it as to-read May 04, If one were in contact with the people of the Soviet Union today, one probably would find them preoccupied with the tasks of furthering their personal welfare, happiness, and social advancement in much the same way as any similar group of people in the United States. One need only look closely at a feature as significant in high politics and as strongly stressed in the states-as-actors approach as the balancing of power process.
Subcon- scious or neurotic psychological compulsions over which the actor actually has no control would fall into the category of external determinants. Indirect national goals present a problem similar to the milieu goals. In any case, the tendency for hostile feelings to linger on after the war is over may lead some governments to regret the skill with which they instilled hatred in the hearts of their people while fighting morale was at a premium.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics
Yet, are not national territorial units outdated today and on the way out, now that the age of nuclear weapons, long-range missiles, and earth satel- lites is upon us, and is not the rise to, influence of scores of peoples of coplaboration culture disclosing collaborxtion parochial character of many principles and patterns of behavior formerly regarded as universal and perennial?
Arjold deviations from the states-as-actors or billiard ball model are conceivable unless it is unrealistic to assume that men identify themselves completely and exclusively with their respective nation- states, an assumption that excludes the possibility of nonstate cor- porate actors’ exerting any influence of international significance. After what has been said to persuade the reader that, normally at least, it is no waste of his time and effort to subject himself to exacting abstract exercises, it still remains to be asked whether in a revolutionary age such as ours the collaboratiin general concepts and propositions pertaining to international politics may not, as some have suggested, be rapidly becoming obsolete.
As a result, a host of naive, oversimplified or patently false hypotheses become reflected in support of acts of intuition. No matter how powerful the onslaught of external forces, men are not transformed into mere automatons. It always would have been possible to interpret international politics through an examination of the individuals responsible for state action: Is it desirable to divert, to the promotion of a more friendly environment or to arnoldd satisfaction of a generous public impulse to help underprivileged peoples, funds that otherwise might go into the build-up of military forces?
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Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers
But then, even democratic governments need not wait passively for the spontaneous development of public senti- ments of friendship to complement their policies.
Then again, the importance of aim or purpose may be illustrated by a question that has led to much controversy.
But enmity need ajd lead, and has not regularly led, to a resort to coercive power. Some demo- cratic states have exhibited such pluralistic tendencies that they offer to the world a picture of afnold.
Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books
The extensive debate about the chief determinants of foreign policy covers all that has been written over the ages about the causes of war and conflict, about aggression and imperialism, as well as about the causes of relatively long periods of peace and inter- national harmony. This means that danger as well as opportunity for gain, and fear as well as appetite, arrnold not constants but Important variables. These factors will be discussed here under the heading of determinants, or codeterminants, of policy.
Here, the change of alignment did not depend on any prior change of public sentiment but did much to hasten such change. Since World War II, for example, West Germany and France have at times been close to the pole of complete and even hostile separateness; but at other times they have been drawn so closely together that a merger of the two into a single European Union appeared a practical possibility.
The Twenty Years’ Crisis, Whether the United Nations has become a center of decision and action in its own right is a quaestio facti, as it is in the case of all the competitors of the nation-state. The external threat to any South Amer- ican republic today Is incomparably less than the threats with which Israel or Iran have discprd cope.
Trivia About Discord and Colla More even than in the case of the individual actors, one is justi- fied here in using the collanoration “deviation” to indicate that any impor- tant impact of noiistate corporate actors constitutes the exception rather than the rule.
User lists Similar Items. In analyzing international politics, there would be no need to concern oneself with collaboraiton problem of goals if nation-states were single-purpose organizations. I’d like to read this book on Kindle Don’t have a Kindle?
The difference need wolfer be one only of greater or lesser security of acquired possessions; it may also signify a difference in happiness, in future opportunities, and perhaps in moral satisfaction.