BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. L’estetica (Aesthetica) [Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Book by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Aesthetica. by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Publication date Usage Public Domain Mark Topics bub_upload. Publisher Kleyb.

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Herder is not particularly clear about the difference between bauumgarten energy Energie that is displayed in music and the force Kraft that is at work in poetry, but his idea seems to be that energy is the outward manifestation, in change or motion, of underlying forces.

First he argues that poetry aims to arouse our affects or engage our emotions simply because they are sensible:.

18th Century German Aesthetics

Ordinarily, the faculty of cognition aims at truth, and the faculty of desire aims at action. This is Marcus Herz —Herder’s junior by three years. Be the first to review this item Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Baumgarten’s recognition of the perfection of sensible cognition as well as the perfection of what is represented as a distinct source of pleasure in beauty leads him to recognize not just one but in fact three different potential sources of beauty in a work of art: This is Sulzer’s decisive modification of the Leibnizo-Wolffian approach to aesthetics, not to be found in Baumgarten baumgaren in Baumgarten’s aezthetica Herder.

We may now turn to Herder’s second main criticism of Lessing, hinted at in the first of the Groves of Criticism but more fully developed in the unpublished fourth Grove and in its successor, the essay on Sculpture.

The version of this statue that was unearthed near Naples in and aeshtetica acquired by Pope Julius II for the Vatican, where it has been displayed ever since, is now thought to be a Roman copy of a Pergamese bronze from the second century BCE, and may or may not be the same one described by Pliny Natural HistoryXXXV. Herder insists that visible beauty arises only from the most superficial features of objects, not from their asthetica reality, and that only feeling—by which he here means the sense of touch—can put us aesghetica direct contact with reality, or with the deeper truth about physical reality.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: This article has no associated abstract. But his writing offers no evidence that he knew their works. You are commenting using your WordPress. Baumgarten was the son of a Pietist minister from Berlin, but was orphaned by the time he was eight. However, Sulzer also recognizes that art can be put to perverse and immoral use as well as healthy and good use, thus while art can contribute to morality both directly and indirectly we must also have an independent grasp of and commitment to the fundamental principles of morality in order to make sure that aesthetic experience’s natural tendency to morally good outcomes is not perverted.


Aesthetica | work by Baumgarten |

Moreover, this complex of human mental powers is productive of pleasure, through the sensible representation of perfection, in its own right. And what are the rules in accordance with which judgments of taste are tacitly made?

He further insists that there is an essential difference within the so-called visual arts that Lessing fails to capture, namely that painting is concerned strictly with with the sense of sight whereas the aesthetics of sculpture in fact derive primarily from the sense of touch.

But there is nevertheless a strongly cognitivist cast to Wolff’s aesthetics. MorgenstundenLesson VII, pp. Johann Joachim Winckelmann —the son of a cobbler from Prussia, studied at Halle and Jena, and became a school teacher. Mendelssohn followed his rabbi from Dessau to Berlin at the age of fourteen. In the case of the visual arts of painting and sculpture, Wolff locates their perfection in imitation or veridical representation, while other arts find their perfections in the fulfillment of intended uses.

But works of art also enliven our abstract knowledge of moral precepts and make them effective on our action, so aesthetic experience is also of indirect moral value. This point could also be thought to depend on one of Mendelssohn’s ideas, namely his contrast between natural and arbitrary or conventional signs. Notify me of new posts via email. After finishing SculptureHerder published a collection of folk poetry from around the world, Popular Songs —79a work on the Old Testament, On the Spirit of Hebrew Poetry —83the large work on philosophy of history already mentioned, an influential defense of Spinoza under the name of God: One other important aesthetician of the s was also, like Herder, actually a student of Kant, but his theory would become an unstated target of Kant’s criticism rather than a source for him.

Lessing thereby misses what is essential to poetry altogether, namely that it communicates to us the real force of objects, including but not limited to actions, and thus most deeply engages our own force in response.

Sulzer was clearly significant for successors such as Kant and Schiller, both for his emphasis on the free activity of the mind in aesthetic experience and for his complex rather than simplistic position on the baumgartne between art and morality. However, from this innovation Sulzer does not draw the conclusion that Kant subsequently will, namely, that there can be no general rules for beauty.

Learn how your comment data is processed. In fact, Mendelssohn’s analysis of our mixed emotions in the experience of tragedy is even more subtle than this, aesthtica a further aspect of it is that our knowledge that we are experiencing represented rather than real people allows us to enjoy sympathy with the perfections of the noble characters who are depicted rather than pity at their weaknesses or at the fate that overcomes them.


Sulzer’s morality is a Wolffian form of utilitarianism, according to which the goal of the moral life is happiness. But we will have to leave these arts aside and conclude our discussion of Herder with a comment on his supposed historical and cultural relativism, which, as was earlier noted, has often been thought to be his central contribution to modern thought. Mendelssohn’s characterization of the intrinsic perfection of objects in nature and thus of the objects depicted in representational art follows in the path already marked out by Wolff: Mendelssohn answers this question this by saying that.

Mendelssohn never presented his aesthetic theory in a full-length treatise. Second, Herder objects to a tripartite classification of the methods of aesthetics, as such a theory, that Riedel proposes. Leibniz also holds that the perfection that we perceive in other objects is in some sense communicated to ourselves, although he does not say that our pleasure in the perception of perfection is actually directed at the self-perfection that is thereby caused.

What would he not do to transform his sight into touch, to make his seeing into a form of touching that feels in the dark…. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Thus Mendelssohn writes, first with reference to the power of cognition but then with reference to desire aaesthetica well, that.

On the contrary, in his view the causal relation between perfection in the object and the pleasurable sentiments of activity in the subject is precisely the sort of relation that aestehtica rise to rules, although such rules will be fairly general rather than very baumgadten. AfterWolff’s philosophy enjoyed an influence in most parts of Germany similar to that which the philosophy of Locke exercised in most quarters in Britain by then and in France beginning a decade or two later.

Jean Gimpel, in Against Art and Artists, discusses the development of aesthetics by Baumgarten, and of course, does not see it positively.

For psychology, to know is to seeand its greatest pleasure baumbarten beauty …. In the latter essay, Mendelssohn makes a number of points that will become central to the subsequent German discussion of the sublime, especially in Kant. Philosophically one could say that it is a piece of another possible world Schriftenp.

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In doing so we would also come closer to the language of the ancients and its meaning. Several sections later, he uses the metaphor of the mirror to describe the relation between God, the world, and we who look at the mirror:. It baumgsrten in his own mind the artist was to search for the strength of spirit with which he marked his marble.