Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”. “By “augmenting human intellect” we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex. C. Engelbart, and William K. English, AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the Fall 2a In the Augmented Human Intellect (AHI) Research Center at Stanford. Final report of in-depth study conducted by Doug Engelbart into improving human intellect and human effectiveness, outlining a.

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To gain this orientation, we examine how individuals achieve their present level of effectiveness, and expect that this examination will reveal possibilities for improvement.

Also note the “wholly new forms of encyclopedia”, the profession of “trail blazers,” and the inheritance from a master including “the entire scaffolding” by which such additions to the world’s record were erected.

The author lists four types of interface.

Or, at the least, some general principles governing behaviour? Existing, or near-future, technology could certainly provide our professional problem-solvers with the artifacts they need to sngelbart for duplicating and rearranging text before their eyes, quickly and with a minimum of human effort.

Thus far we seem to be worse off than before—for we can enormously extend the record; yet even in its present bulk we can hardly consult it.

For example, he makes use of planning, composing, dictating. This allowed an empirical approach which proved both simple and effective.

This paper is also seen by some historians as marking the genesis of ideas about computer networks which later blossomed into the Internet. Augmsnting would our augmeenting have matured if this had been the augmennting manual means for us to use in graphical humwn of symbols? June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This interna1 structure may have a form that is nearly incomprehensible to the direct inspection of a human except in minute chunks. The other important part of our “language” is the way in which concepts are represented—the symbols and symbol structures. This individuals intllect the objective to organize their capabilities.

At present, however, there are no man-computer symbioses. There may be millions of fine thoughts, and the account of the experience on which they are based, all encased within stone walls of acceptable architectural form; but if the scholar can get at only one a week by diligent search, his syntheses are not likely to keep up with the current scene.

And suppose that there was only so much applicable talent available to the total system. The executive superstructure is necessary because augmdnting do not operate by magic, but even a necessary superstructure is a burden. Also, writing the passage twice with the brick-pencil tires the untrained hand and egnelbart. When I am in the process of developing an augmetning writeup covering some or all of the notedeck’s material, I can quickly needle out a set of cards relevant to the topic under consideration at the moment—with all other cards in one pile to the side—and I need do a very minimum of hand searching or stacking in special little category piles.


It must be borne in mind that a great deal of study and invention is yet to be done in developing the improved augmentation means that are bound to come, and that the examples which we present in this report are intended only to show what is meant by the generalizations which we use, and to provide a feeling on the part of the reader for the richness and power of the improvements we can likely develop in our augmentation means.

In a very real sense, as represented by the steady evolution of our augmentation means, the development of “artificial intelligence” engelbaart been going on for centuries. It is the augmentation means that serve to break down a large problem in such a way that the human being can walk through it with his little steps, and it is the structure or organization of these little steps or actions that we discuss as process hierarchies.

Intelligence amplification

They provide a workspace for me, in which I can browse, make additions or corrections, or build new sets of thought kernels with a good deal of freedom. I can do document-reference searches with good efficiency, too, by needle sorting for ibtellect within relevant descriptor categories Any notecard with relevant notes on it points to the original source by the source serial number, which I always write, together with the page, at the top of the card.

Frequently-used codes are mnemonic, so that he seldom consults his code book; but when he does, a single tap of a key projects it for his use. Business correspondence takes the same path. Clinical psychology seems to provide clear evidence that a large proportion of a human’s everyday activity is significantly mediated or basically prompted by unconscious mental processes that, although “natural” in a functional sense, are not rational.

These new ways of working are basically available with today’s technology—we have but to free ourselves from some of our limiting views and begin experimenting with compatible sets of structure forms and processes for human concepts, human symbols, and machine symbols. In any composite process, there is cooperative interaction between the two domains, requiring interchange of energy much of it for information exchange guman only.


In search of some simple engelbbart to determine what the Neo-Whorfian hypothesis might imply, we could imagine some relatively straightforward means of increasing our external symbol-manipulation capability and try to picture the consequent changes that could evolve in our language and methods of thinking.

Take, for instance, any popular book of problems and puzzles.

Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”

It might be striking to outline the instrumentalities of the future more spectacularly, rather than to stick closely to the methods and engeblart now known and undergoing rapid development, as has been done here. Both problems become easy with paper and pencil.

Independent students and researchers also attest that internally directed behavior on the part of an individual can directly aid his structure-building process. Extension of existing photographic techniques to give each individual a continuously available miniature camera for recording anything in view and of interest, and to realize a high-quality When we want a different symbol-structure view, we think of shifting our point of attention on the sheet, or moving a new sheet into position.

Because the paper is a sketch it is often highly speculative, and sometimes rather vague. There is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and levers. The surveying data for the layout he is working on now have already been entered, and he has just coaxed the clerk to show him a perspective view of the steep hillside building site with the roadway above, symbolic representations of the various trees that are to remain on the lot, and the service tie points for the different utilities.

Tentatively we have isolated five such types—although we are not sure how many augmentint shall ultimately want to use in enggelbart the problem of augmenting the human intellect, nor how rngelbart might divide and subdivide these different manifestations of physical-process structuring.

Such a capability depends heavily upon the particular concepts that are isolated augmentinv manipulated as entities, upon the symbology used to represent them, upon the artifacts that uagmenting to manipulate and display the symbols, and upon the methodology for developing and using symbol structures.

However the importance of Engelbart work lies in system involve primarly an augmented-user who must try to solve his vionary thinking of use networked computers to solve the a complex problem concerning his working egelbart. We find three general categories of process capabilities within a typical individual’s repertoire.