This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.

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Large armor- and mechanized-based forces can conduct large-scale, combined arms operations. Planners should take full advantage of the march capabilities of units, as well as the transportation infrastructure in the area of the march.

A third module describes the organizations, operations, and tactics of other OPFORs not covered in the first two modules.

Activities supporting deception, such as radar corner reflectors, deception jammers, and dummy radio nets also contribute to the ESO counterreconnaissance effort.

Rather than standing organizations with predictable structures, most of their military organizations are ad hoc. There is no time to stop in assembly areas to marry up battle groups.

File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf

The State may or may not have chemical and biological weapons, but has the capability to produce or acquire them. FM provides the trainer with a military doctrine and operational art for the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR. The OPFOR is keenly aware of the importance of tempo and the likelihood of meeting opfo battles on the modern battlefield. The primary purpose of the field manuals in the series is to provide the basis for a realistic and versatile OPFOR to meet U.

The organization guide allows for standing divisions, but districts with separate brigades would be much more common and in keeping with the spirit of the infantry-based OPFOR concept. A combined movement is economical in the use of transport resources and preserves both equipment and personnel.

Perception management efforts are most critical prior to hostilities. Medium and large infantry-based forces may also possess significant armor- and mechanized-based formations. For definitions of other key terms, the reader should refer to the index, where page numbers in bold type indicate the main entry for a particular topic.

Army or its systems. This menu of possible forces allows U. The OPFOR needs to hold these at constant readiness to execute important tasks, starting with the long-range fire strike. One way to solve this problem is to transport tanks and other tracked and heavy equipment on heavy equipment transporters HETsat least to the final assembly area. Thus, deployment in peacetime may be by rail, but during combat the movement of units by rail would be rare, except in strategic depth, and used only in exceptional circumstances.


This could be any advanced technology or system possessed by a militarily significant country, including western or developing countries. The least preferred option is to have an army forward CP move at the head of the first echelon throughout, with the main CP moving in the second echelon, a day’s march behind. Such an OPFOR should portray the specified, real-world threat force with the greatest possible fidelity based on the best available classified and unclassified information.

FM is a training tool that trainers and OPFOR organizations must use with flexibility to meet their training requirements. Movement support detachments MSDs, see Chapter 12tailored to the terrain and the degree of enemy route-denial effort, follow immediately behind the forward security element or possibly behind advance guard battalions.

Traffic control and constant cover against air attack are essential, especially at obstacle crossings and chokepoints and in assembly areas. Compared to the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR, these forces typically have fewer standing divisions and brigades. Electromagnetic spectrum operations ESO conducted by the marching unit are primarily passive during movement. Once a decision is made, rapid mobilization and movement of units assumes primary importance.

See Chapter 7 for more information. The OPFOR depicts its enemy by using double-lined versions of the same symbols it uses for its own friendly forces. None of these forces is capable of meeting the most advanced armies on an even footing in conventional battle.

File:FM – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December ).pdf – Wikimedia Commons

In preparation for a strategic operation, top priority goes to the deployment of ground elements of aviation units, long-range missile units, air defense units, and key combat service support elements. The preferred method is for the main CP to move with first-echelon combat forces. Sometimes trainers may find it necessary to draw some elements from both organization guides in order to constitute the appropriate OPFOR order of battle. This OPFOR can also include less-capable forces, such as internal security forces, the militia, and reserves.

The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR can conduct a strategic operation involving the combined forces in a theater.

f Troop control must be flexible and continuous. In the case of intervention by an external power or coalition, this strategy aims to undermine the enemy’s will to continue the conflict without the necessity of defeating his main forces on the battlefield.


They are also capable of adapting to dynamic situations and seizing opportunities on the battlefield. These deception systems opfpr the false signatures of additional vehicles or columns, thereby concealing the true size and location of OPFOR units, as well as the actual march routes.

Within the wide area of responsibility termed the commandant’s areathe OPFOR creates specific sectors extending km along a march route, with several traffic control posts deployed at the aforementioned critical locations. Depending on the situation, these irregular forces may bear the labels of insurgents, guerrillas, or light infantry. These forces normally have a complex structure, with more specialized units operating highly sophisticated equipment.

During a march from the depth opfro the final assembly area, an army allocates from two to four routes to each division and one to the remaining army troops. They have some armor but rely on dismounted or motorized infantry for the bulk of their combat power. The latter is preferable, pofor it is desirable to have a o;for first echelon in going over to the attack.

These forces may comprise A separate field manual provides characteristics of worldwide military equipment available to the capabilities-based OPFOR organizations in the three modules.

FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Inroduction

A small infantry-based force typically has oofor integration capability ability to conduct tactical-level combat actions with limited fire support or basic integration capability ability to conduct battalion-level tactical combined arms actions.

However, these Ground Forces are primarily infantry dismounted or motorizedwith relatively few mechanized infantry and tank units and perhaps some airborne infantry units. Accurate and complete reconnaissance is imperative.

In order to build a strong strategic grouping to mount an offensive in one theater or to ensure defense of a threatened theater, the General Staff must mobilize and redeploy forces from one or f, other theaters.

Sometimes certain threat information may not be available at any level of classification. When the army moves into that rest area, the forward CP moves on to the next one; this move may be wholly or in part by helicopter.