The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in. The stomach worms Habronema muscae, H microstoma, and Draschia megastoma are widely distributed. The adults are 6–25 mm long. Draschia are found in. Descriptions and articles about Habronema muscae in the Encyclopedia of Life. Includes Molecular Biology and Genetics; Molecular Biology; Wikipedia.

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Large and Small Strongylesbut remain in the lumen, mainly in the mucus surrounding the wall, and do not feed primarily on blood but on other digestive or body fluids. Hence, this muscaf approach allows the specific identification and differentiation of the DNA from H. Habronfma Parasitic nematodes of mammals Parasites of equines Veterinary helminthology.

Males have caudal wings alae and a copulatory bursa with two unequal spicules for attaching to the female during copulation. Pale micron irregular branching hyphae with rare septae and non-parallel walls surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation Musccae nodular collagenolytic granuloma nodular necrobiosis – withers, back, and lateral neck; normal overlying hair coat and skin; eosinophilic granulomas Mast cell tumors: Predilection site of adult Habronema worms is the stomach.

Adult female worms lay eggs or musce L1- larvae in the stomach of the horses that are passed with the feces. This page was last edited on 22 Marchat Small, hazelnut-like nodules can appear around the bronchi.

Larvae that do not reach the stomach but remain in the tissues e. Staphylococcus aureus ; chronic granulomas – neck and pectoral region Exuberant granulation tissue Squamous cell carcinoma Equine sarcoid For microscopic lesions eosinophilic nodular dermatitis: In some countries juscae larvicides mainly with cyromazine are approved for use on horses that can contribute to reduce the fly populations in animal premises.

The worms have a tubular digestive system with two openings, the mouth and the anus. Adult worms in the stomach so-called gastric habronemiasis of horses are usually not very pathogenic. The parasitic adult female worms lay eggs within the horse’s stomach. There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of this disease, which is mainly due to limitations with diagnosis in the live animal and with the identification of the parasites in the intermediate hosts.


Habronema Scientific classification Kingdom: They all occur worldwide, but prevalence and incidence vary a lot depending on the region and the climatic conditions. Cutaneous and ocular habronemiasis in horses: Markedly infiltrating the dermis and subcutis and extending into the panniculus carnosus, there are multifocal to coalescing eosinophilic granulomas up to 2 mm in diameter which contain rare cross-sections of nematode larvae.

They are often deposited on humid parts of the host’s body eyes, nose, lips, genitalia, open wounds, etc. Control of Flies Biol. Regular manure removal ideally daily, at least weekly in stables and barns can significantly reduce the fly populations, provided that manure heaps elsewhere are adequately handled for preventing fly development keep it dry, promote maggot predators, etc. Rarely, granulomas contain up to 60 um diameter nematode larvae with a smooth, um thick cuticle, coelomyarian-polymyarian musculature, prominent lateral chords, and a digestive tract lined by cuboidal, uninucleate cells.

A thick mucus is excreted by the stomach lining. The establishment of this tool has important implications for the specific diagnosis of clinical cases of gastric and cutaneous habronemosis in equids, and for studying the ecology and epidemiology of the two species of Habronema.

The prepatent period time between infection and first eggs shed is about two months, suggesting that musfae than one generation can follow during a normal season in regions with a warm and humid climate. Habronema microstoma and Draschia megastoma are viviparous, i. The eggs are later excreted through muscea feces.

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Rapid development of papules, or failure of wound to heal with development of exuberant granulation tissue Ulceration, exudation, intermittent hemorrhage On cut section — multifocal, small 1 to 5 mmcaseous to gritty, yellow to white, non-branching granules necrotic, caseous or calcified material surrounding nematode larvae Lungs: Such infected wounds are difficult to heal, can become infected with secondary bacteria and may attract other fly species that can cause myiasis e.

To overcome such limitations, a molecular approach, based on the use of genetic markers in the second internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA, was established for the two species of Habronema. Buccal capsule cylindrical, chitinous.

The granulomas frequently contain a core of eosinophilic necrotic debris mixed with many degenerate eosinophils surrounded by epithelioid macrophages and occasional multinucleated giant cells foreign body typefurther bounded by a layer of fibroblasts and fibrosis.


If available, follow more specific national or regional recommendations for Habronema control.

Habronema muscae – Wikipedia

To learn more about vaccines against parasites of livestock and pets c lick here. Once on the final host, L3 larvae are swallowed and get into the stomach where they complete development to adult worms within about 2 months.

Ask your veterinary doctor! Diffusely, in the surrounding subcutis and dermis, there are numerous eosinophils with fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells, admixed with variably sized small caliber blood vessels that are lined by reactive endothelial cells and surrounded by hypertrophied fibroblasts granulation tissueall of which separates and surrounds collagen bundles, muscle fibers and adnexa.

So far no true vaccine is available against Habronema worms of horses. Larvae may be found in scrappings of such wounds. Occasionally, infected L3-larvae deposited on the nostrils can migrate into the lungs of the host and cause so-called pulmonary habronemiasis.


Diagnosis of gastric infections is difficult because the small eggs or L1-larvae passed in the feces are easily missed in fecal examinations. Draschia megastoma can causes tumor-like swellings in the stomach wall that can burst and cause fatal peritonitis, but this is rather unusual.

These larvae complete development to infective L3 larvae inside the maggots within about 2 weeks. Click the slide to view. Haired skin and subcutis: Habronema muscae is an internal stomach parasite that is most commonly found in horses. Infective L3-larvae deposited on skin wounds produce so-called skin or cutaneous habronemiasis, also known as “summer sores”. Retrieved from ” https: Multifocally myocytes are atrophied, have vacuolated sarcoplasm degeneration or have hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm with pyknosis and loss of cross striations necrosis.

Non-healing skin wounds hzbronema reddish to brownish color and containing rice-grain-like calcified material are typical for skin habronemiasis. Cutaneous periocular Habronema infection in a dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius. Articles with ‘species’ microformats.

So far there are no reports on resistance of Habronema worms to anthelmintics.