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Within this context, the idea of a single author and a single originaltext narrows down the cultural diversity to which the plurality ofmanuscripts and variants of a given text are testimony. He discriminated between the legal materialfound in the sagas and in Grgs, and argued that the sagas reflectedan older legal system. Notwithstanding such methodological problems, Schulmans thesis shows thatNorwegian and Icelandic laws were interwoven and that thirteenth-century relationsbetween Iceland and Norway went well beyond the political arena.
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That is to say, their material might havebeen worked differently. Huem nu denne Snorre Sturlesns Historie som vi her prsenterer,hafuer paa dette voris Tungemaal verterit, fant jeg icke for mig i deBgger jeg her til brugt: Menningar ogMinningarsjur Mette Magnussen,pp.
The mean-ing is everywhere, the origin is nowhere. Ef mar yrkir haung vm konvng dana ea suia ea nor manna oc vararscog gang oc eigo hus carlar beirra sacarnar. The skin on which the MS. They also show that the establishment ofHeimskringla as the canonical kings sagas must be carefully reassessed. Through this analysis, I come to an under-standing of the Icelandic submission as a gradual process, ratherthan as a single crucial event.
Some textsare born literary, some achieve literariness, and some have literarinessthrust upon them. I suggest that these documents are fifteenth-century fabrications anddo not reflect the historical situation of Iceland in the thirteenth cen-tury. Schulman compares the legal mater-ial about women in three Icelandic legal textsGrgs, Jrnsa and Jnsbkto eachother and, in the case of Jrnsa and Jnsbk, to Norwegian legal texts, but doesnot establish the relations between the Grgs laws and the Gulabingslg and Frostabingslg.
Icelanders and the Kings of Norway: Mediaeval Sagas and Legal Texts (The Northern World, 17)
How far should we operate with the notion of a fixed setof authorial intentions? Many scholars have responded to Steblin-Kamenskijs thesis, forexample: Barbara Crawford has helped me oncrucial occasions; this book would never have been published with-out her and Jn Viar Sigurssons enthusiastic support.
Ole Worm wrote in his Fortale til Lseren [Preface to the reader]to this edition that he found the chronicle as an anonymous piece,but that he came across information about Snorris authorship in acollection of essays entitled Norrigis Beskrifuelse [Delineation ofNorway], which Claussn had previously written: Vafalaust hefur samningurinn veriskrur, um lei og sari svardagarnir fru fram [Undoubtedly, the agreementwas recorded immediately after the oaths were taken].
Andersson,14 chapter oneAs ystein Rian argues, the conservative maintenance of the lawsbecame a bulwark for the Norwegian national inheritance, and theconservative retention of the laws was combined with an interestin the old kings sagas. According to rna saga biskups and three fourteenth-centuryIcelandic annals, King Magns Hkonarson had a law-book sent toIceland inwhich was approved at the Albingi in Tmasson, Formlar slenskra, discusses some of these issues: I am also grateful to Ralph OConnor for his count-less suggestions for improvements of earlier drafts of this book.
Through an investigation of the role of fate in Heimskringla, he deduces that thishistorical conception was opposed to the Christian historical thought current else-where in Europe. But as for lives of past kings, thereseems to have been a sense that Snorris work could be supplemented sometimes in extreme ways but not bettered. Everything thatman says or writes, everything that he makes, junlor that he touchescan and must give information about him. For a summarydiscussion about the possible sources for the prologue in Hanssns translation, seeJrgensen, Snorre Sturlussns Fortale, pp.
Dybwad,pp. In addition terio the attributions to Ari inn frimentioned above, Claussn could have found this information on the Bergsbk manu-script and in Orkneyinga saga; see Jrgensen, Snorre Sturlesns Fortale, pp. Et vrk af Snorri Sturluson? Studies in Northern Europe, ed. Since the layout of the text indicates the division of its gram-matical clauses, but not the legal provisions, the modern reader mustidentify each provision zampaio a grammatical and logical analysisof the clauses and also by analogy with other provisions.
This can also be observed in many other manuscripts, and in most instances seemsto show some awareness of the structure of the text.
The dependency of the analysis on sagasand annals may be illustrated by the difficulties concerning the dat-ing of the Grgs and Jrnsa texts in the Staarhlsbk manuscript. How far should we use postulated poetic rules and conventions as ameans of rejecting readings, diagnosing corruptions, and devising emen-dations?
Stofnun rna Magnssonar terraz,i, pp.