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Anadenanthera peregrina occurs wild – that is, undoubtedly free from any hint of present or past cultivation – only in South America, and, as Altschul theorized, the natives of the West Indies ” may have found it easier to plant the trees than to maintain communication with the mainland for their source of supply ” of the snuff. The binomial Cannabis indica is, however, frequently employed as though it represented a species-concept distinct from C.

Snuffing tubes and paraphernalia for preparing yopo snuff Anadenanthera peregrina of the Guahibo Indians, Rio Orinoco, Colombia. Cannabis supplies the drug of the poor in India, where, in addition to its religious use, it is highly valued in folk medicine and as an aphrodisiac; and, hedonistically, as an euphoric narcotic, especially in activities requiring endurance or physical effort. The vernacular names for the two kinds of red seeds are often the same: Nevertheless, a number of binomials have been legitimately published as deserving nomenclatorial recognition.

Pancraetium maritimum and other species are cardiac poisons, and P. It must be recognized that this problem has arisen because of a confusion of concepts: It seems that one of the most extraordinarily mistaken generalizations in ethnobotany – that all the intoxicating snuffs of the Amazon that were not obviously tobacco must have been prepared from Anadenanthera peregrina – has stemmed from Bentham’s conclusion.

They chewed the root and kept the masticated material in the mouth for some time. Sophora secundiflora is a beautiful shrub – often planted as an ornamental in Texas – with leathery, evergreen leaflets and large inflorescences of violet or violet-blue flowers and woody legumes containing usually three or four beans.

Huarpes by candi tg on Prezi

Hashish, the resin from pistillate flowers, is eaten by millions, especially in Moslem areas of North Africa and the Near East. More than years ago, it was reported that the Hottentots employed a vision-inducing narcotic plant called kanna or channa. Even within the local range of Anadenanthera peregrinait is not safe to assume that all narcotic snuffs are referable to this species. Up to that time, there had been much confusion in the literature, and the snuff called cohoba was commonly considered to have been tobacco.


Courtesy Botanical Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts An ethnobotanically and pharmacologically most interesting practice is the reported mixing in a narcotic drink of peyote and mescal beans amongst the Comanche, Oto and Tonkawa.

En una mentalidad en donde lo humano y lo sobrehumano siempre han convivido de manera inseparable, el hecho de comprender, de reinterpretar y de compenetrar esta nueva realidad espiritual era de fundamental importancia para la supervivencia. This powder alone – without any admixture – is nyakwana snuff. Sophora secundiflora Sophora secundiflora is a beautiful shrub – often planted as an ornamental in Texas – with leathery, evergreen leaflets and large inflorescences of violet or violet-blue flowers and woody legumes containing usually three or four beans.

Racconti aztechi della ConquistaEinaudi. Even to-day, amongst the Kiowa, Comanche, and other tribes, the leader or ” roadman ” of the peyote ceremony often wears, as part of his ornamental dress, a necklace of Sophora secundiflora beans. Safford later pointed out the use of Anadenanthera peregrina in preparing the narcotic yopo-snuff of the Orinoco, still much employed, and established its identity with the ancient cohoba of the West Indies.

The cult of santiago among the indigenous communities of hispanic america: Furthermore, some of the same hallucinogenic tryptamines found in varying proportions in Anadenanthera peregrina have been located in material said to be referable to A. Many reports ascribe the sources of Amazon snuffs to various leguminous trees, and the British botanist Bentham’s concluded that “all South American trees Ganjahusually smoked with tobacco but sometimes eaten or drunk as an infusion, consists of dried pistillate tops with exuded resin carefully gathered from cultivated or escaped “races” notably rich in tetrahydrocannabinol.

Lengua Huarpe. Diccionario Allentiac – Español

Bhangthe weakest, consists of the dried plant gathered green, powdered and made into a drink with water or milk, or with sugar and spices, into candies called majun; opium and Datura are said sometimes to be added. This property of the plant has been experimentally substantiated. This may possibly be responsible for the confusion in certain early literature of the terms mescal beans and peyote. As examples, we might cite de la Condamine’s observation in the early eighteenth century of an hallucinogenic snuff known as curupa amongst the Omaguas of Amazonian Peru and a modern statement that the Tikunas of the upper Amazon both used a snuff made from Anadenanthera peregrina: As a consequence of the comparatively restricted distribution of Anadenanthera peregrinathe use of a snuff prepared from its beans obviously must be much more restricted than the literature would indicate.

Yet the literature – especially the anthropological – has unwarrantably exaggerated the importance of the leguminous snuffs from Anadenanthera Piptadenia. At one time, it was felt that the central nervous activity of yopo-snuff was due mainly, if not wholly, to 5-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine or bufotenine.


Pancraetiuma genus of some 15 species in the warmer parts mainly of tropical Asia and Africa, huqrpes powerfully toxic principles, including alkaloids. This is a magical snuff used exclusively by witch-doctors and prepared from the bark of a certain tree which, pounded up, is boiled in a small earthenware pot, until all the water has evaporated, and a sediment remains at the bottom of the pot.

Much of a basic nature, especially in ecological studies, remains for botanists to unravel. The present author found the Indians in the Rio Apaporis basin preparing a brownish, narcotic snuff, known amongst the Puinaves as yakeefrom Virola calophylla and V.

The ceremony formerly was performed especially before going to war. These natives strip the bark from jungle trees early in the morning and scrape off the soft inner indiow, with its resinous exudation. Apparently several species of Mimosa are generically referred to as jurema in northeastern Brazil. These cakes are powdered when a supply of snuff is desired.

Al mismo tiempo, pero, notamos un hecho de singular importancia. Los indils decidieron cambiar de lugar, pero adondequiera que fueran, la serpiente los encontraba. It is obvious that extensive research must be done on South American hallucinogenic snuffs in general and on the use of Anadenanthera in particular before anything approaching a clear understanding of the total picture can be expected.

Alianza Universidad Textos, Madrid. Next, he snuff, s, huarped, with the same reed, he absorbs the powder into each nostril successively.

Santiago, pues, es quien vigila para que este pueblo no se extinga.

The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part II)

When the syrup has sun-dried, it is pulverized, sifted and mixed with ashes of the bark of a wild species of Theobroma. The biodynamic activity of Virola resin was at first presumed to be due to myristicine. Amongst the Kung tribe of Bushmen in Dobe, Botswana, this bulbous perennial, known locally as kwashiis said to have psychoactive properties.

There are many parallels and similarities between certain aspects of the modern peyote cult and the Red Bean Dance, and both obviously had a southern origin because of the natural distribution of the plants involved. This potent hallucinating drink merits deeper study.

Como citar este artigo. At about nine-thirty, I fell into a fitful sleep which continued, with frequent awakenings, until morning. A number of other missionary reports from the Orinoco area of Colombia and Venezuela reiterate the details offered by Gumilla.